Posts

Paper at 2017 Assoc. Budgeting & Financial Management Conference

Alfred Ho (University of Kansas) will be presenting our paper at the 2017 Assoc. Budgeting & Financial Management Conference in Washington, D.C.

Performance Budgeting in U.S. cities: A Multi-Level Analysis

Many past studies have documented different types of performance information usage in the budgetary process.  Many also show that various organizational factors influence its usage.  In this study, we take a new theoretical approach by analyzing the practice of performance budgeting through a multi-level perspective. Using data from a survey study of U.S. local departments, this study analyzes how service nature, organizational capacity, leadership, organizational culture, and political institutional forces influence how performance analytics is used or not used to impact budgetary decision-making. The empirical results show that there are different dynamics for performance-informed performance budgeting and high-impact performance budgeting.  Politics do not necessarily eliminate a need for performance-informed budgeting, but executive commitment to data-driven decision-making is necessary to achieve high impact in using performance budgeting.

Authors: Alfred Ho (University of Kansas), Rashmi Krishnamurthy (Queens University) and Kevin C. Desouza

Two Papers Accepted for HICSS 2018

My colleagues will be attending the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences to present our research.

Factors Promoting the Collection of Performance Measurement: Evidence from US Local Governments

Performance measurement has gained significant importance around the world. Many governments are adopting performance measurement as a part of reform efforts. Despite the widespread practitioner attention, academic studies are inconclusive about the impact of performance measurement in the public sector. Moreover, while studies have examined what factors influence the adoption of performance measures and its impact, they have paid relatively less attention to the use of different types of performance measures. To fill this gap, this study examines: (1) what types of performance measures are collected by US local governments and; (2) how organizational, technical, and external factors influence the collection of performance measurement. Leveraging survey data, we conduct cluster analysis and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to study factors that impact the collection of performance measures. The findings of QCA highlight that no single condition dominates the collection of performance measurement, rather different combinations of organizational and external factors influence the outcome. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for local policymakers and managers.

Rashmi Krishnamurthy (Queens University), Gregory S. Dawson (Arizona State University) Alfred Ho (University of Kansas)

The 2016 US Presidential Election on Facebook: An Exploratory Analysis of Sentiments

Social media platforms are valuable tools for political campaigns. In this study, we analyze a dataset representing over 22 thousand Facebook posts by candidates and over 48 million comments to understand the nature of online discourse. Specifically, we study the interaction between political candidates and the public during the 2016 presidential elections in the United States. We outline a novel method to classify commentators into four groups: strong supporters, supporters, dissenters, and strong dissenters. Comments by each group on policy-related topics are analyzed using sentiment analysis. Finally, we discuss avenues for future research to study the dynamics of social media platforms and political   campaigns.

Saud Alashri (Arizona State University), Srinivasa Srivatsav Kandala (Arizona State University), Vikash Bajaj (Arizona State University), Emily Parriott (Georgia Tech), Yukika Awazu (IÉSEG School of Management)

Mahalo!

Big Data and Planning: PAS Report Published by American Planning Association

The American Planning Association has released a report that I co-authored with Kendra L. Smith.

Big Data and Planning

Data sets are growing so large and complex that using them is like drinking from a fire hose. Feeling overwhelmed? Help is on the way.

Big data isn’t the problem; it’s the solution — and this PAS Report shows how to use it. Arizona State University researchers Kevin C. Desouza and Kendra L. Smith have teamed up on a practical guide to channeling the power of big data. Together they look at how planners around the world are turning big data into real answers for smart cities.

Learn how Dublin is gearing up geospatial data to steer traffic. See how Singapore is collecting citizens’ selfies to track smog. Discover how Detroit is crowdsourcing creative ideas for its 50-year plan. And find out how the U.S. government is planning to use Yelp to improve its services.

What’s the big idea for your community? Read Big Data and Planning for a look at trends and tools you can tap into today.

Page Count: 104
Date Published: Dec. 5, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-61190-188-7

IT Governance in the Public Sector – Journal of Management Information Systems

jmis_30_years_coverAn article I co-authored with Gregory S. Dawson (Arizona State University), James S. Denford (Royal Military College of Canada), Clay K. Williams (Southern Illinois University Edwardsville), and David Preston (Texas Christian University) has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Management Information Systems.

An Examination of Effective IT Governance in the Public Sector Using the Legal View of Agency Theory

Abstract
In the private sector, research on IT governance has frequently applied the classical view of agency theory and focused on the controlling role played by the board of directors in constraining potentially opportunistic manager/agent. However, in the public sector, the board of directors does not exist and there may be less need to focus on the controlling aspect of governance and more need to focus on the politically challenging distribution of state resources. In this U.S. state-based study, we adopt, apply and extend the legal view of agency theory past its sole focus on the board of directors as the solitary mediating hierarch in order to examine the strategic mediating hierarch role played by the state legislature and then conceptualize and test for the existence of a tactical mediating hierarch played by the IT steering committee and the production role of an independent office of the chief information officer (OCIO) in using a fee-for-service funding model. We apply these concepts to extend theory to examine the combination of roles that lead to superior outcomes for the state (the principal) versus those necessary for the IT department (the agent). Our results show that by shifting from the control-oriented view of governance in the private sector to a more mediating view in the public sector, important practices may be portable between the public and private sector, despite their widely differing structures.

Predictive Analytics and Higher Education

SO16ERcoverAn article I co-authored with Kendra Smith appears in the September/October Issue of EDUCASE Review. The article was the cover feature for the issue. You can access the article here.

Predictive Analytics: Nudging, Shoving, and Smacking Behaviors in Higher Education

With predictive analytics, colleges and universities are able to “nudge” individuals toward making better decisions and exercising rational behavior to enhance their probabilities of success.

Facebook and the 2016 US Elections

Over the last few months, I have been working with my research team on several papers that examine how the 2016 US Elections are playing out on Facebook. We have several research notes on our project published on Brookings Institution TechTank Blog.

We also have a paper accepted at the 2016 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining.

Social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook and Twitter, are important spaces for political engagement. SNS have become common elements in political participation, campaigns, and elections. However, little is known about the dynamics between candidate posts and commentator sentiment in response to those posts on SNS. This study enriches computational political science by studying the 2016 U.S. elections and how candidates and commentators engage on Facebook. This paper also examines how online activity might be connected to offline activity and vice versa. We extracted 9,700 Facebook posts by five presidential candidates (Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump, Bernie Sanders, Ted Cruz, and John Kasich) from their official Facebook pages and 12,050,595 comments on those posts. We employed topic modeling, sentiment analysis, and trends detection using wavelet transforms to discover topics, trends, and reactions. Our findings suggest that Republican candidates are more likely to share information on controversial events that have taken place during the election cycle, while Democratic candidates focus on social policy issues. As expected, commentators on Republican candidate pages express negative sentiments toward current public policies as they seldom support decisions made by the Obama administration, while commentators on democratic candidate pages are more likely to express support for continuation or advancement of existing policies. However, the significance (strong/weak) and nature (positive/negative) of sentiments varied between candidates within political parties based on perceived credibility of the candidate’s degree of credibility on a given issue. Additionally, we explored correlation between online trends of comments/sentiment and offline events. When analyzing the trend patterns, we found that changes in online trends are driven by three factors: 1) popular post, 2) offline debates, and 3) candidates dropping out of the race.

Research Team: Saud Alashri, Srinivasa Srivatsav Kandala, Vikash Bajaj, Roopek Ravi, Anish Pradhan, and Kendra L. Smith

 

Governing Innovation in U.S. State Gov. – Journal of Strategic Info. Systems

JSISMy co-authored article with Gregory S.Dawson (Arizona State University) and James S. Denford (Royal Military College of Canada) has been accepted for publication in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

Governing Innovation in U.S. State Government: An Ecosystem Perspective

In the public sector, the strategic quest for IT-based innovation often starts by hiring a successful private sector CIO and hoping his or her prior experience will transfer. However this often ignores the existence and influence of other entities and IT governance structures that form the innovation ecosystem. Applying the legal view of agency theory to the U.S. state innovation ecosystem and using a crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) approach, we investigate factors that are associated with public sector IT-based innovation. We find that CIO characteristics, structural oversight mechanisms, CIO relationships with authorities, and the state environment combine to form configurations that lead to both high and low performance.

Autonomous Vehicles in Slate and Wired Interview

slateI published a new article in Slate for their Futurography series on the challenges cities might face when self-driving cars share the roads with old school vehicles.

Can Self-Driving Cars Share the Road With Old-School Vehicles?

WiredI was also interviewed for a story in Wired on the US Department of Transportation's Smart City Challenge.

Columbus Just Won $50 Million to Become the City of the Future

Update – Recent Activities to Close out 2015

planning1015It has been a while since I updated my blog. Here is a run down of the main things I have worked on over the last two months.

Good news

Selected Interviews/Press Mentions

  1. Newcombe, T. “Learning to Share: How Cities Are Benefiting from the Sharing Economy,” Government Technology, December 14, 2015,
  2. Moore, J. “The 15 Most Innovative Agencies in Government,” NextGov, December 8, 2015,
  3. Keegan, M. “A Conversation with Dr. Kevin Desouza,” IBM Business of Government Radio Show, December 7, 2015
  4. Dovey, R. “Will City Regulators Treat Driverless Cars Like They’ve Treated Uber?Next City, October 28, 2015
  5. Koma, A. “Hawaii Moves Ahead with Audit of State IT Spending,” StateScoop.com, October 21, 2015

It has been a busy and productive 2015. Best wishes to you and your families for a peaceful and prosperous 2016.